# The Penny Cube

I just finished a 5th grade 3-Act task called Penny Cube that I created last spring.  I tried it then, but just to get some feedback from students and see what I might need to change about how the task should be presented.  Now, after completing this task with two groups of students (at two different points in the year), I’ve learned three things:

1. Students see a video and notice a bunch of things that teachers don’t even realize are there.
2. The curious questions students ask first are often “why” questions.
3. There’s no way to predict everything a group of students might wonder.

I’ll take this reflection from the beginning.  First, I let students know that I was going to show them a video clip.  I also told them that I was going to ask them what they noticed when it was finished playing.  I gave students a chance to brainstorm ideas about what they could do to make sure they would be able to share what they noticed once the clip had finished playing.  Their ideas were amazing:

• We could look for expressions (on faces – I found out later that this student was thinking about context.  A person’s facial expression can tell a lot)  Unfortunately, there were no facial expressions in this video.
• Listen carefully (they might be able to hear something that might give them a clue about what was going on – these students were already expecting a problem situation!)
• Stay focused on the clip.
• Take notes.
• Try to remember as much as you can.

I had never done this before, but after hearing their ideas, I will be using this again.

After showing the video clip for Act 1, I immediately had them talk about what they noticed with their groups.  Then, they were asked to share with the whole group.  Here is what they noticed:

What’s missing from this picture is the wonderful reasoning given for some of these.  For the last bullet, “container is open in the front,” the student told the class that it was open in front so the pennies could be placed in the container more easily (I never thought they’d see or think about that).  They even began to wonder a bit here – “it might be an expression or it might be counting.”  My favorite, though, is the estimation by the girl who said “it looks like 100 pennies in the stack (\$1.00).”  This was particularly interesting to me because of what happened when they were asked to estimate for the focus question.

The wonders were typical from what I usually get from students new to 3-Act tasks, but I handled it a bit differently this time.  Here are their wonders (click here for a typed version of Penny Cube Notices&Wonders):

In my limited (yet growing) experience with teaching using 3-Act tasks, I’ve noticed that the wonders are initially “why” questions (as stated in number 2 above).  I told the class that I noticed that the questions they were asking were mostly “why” questions.  I asked them what other words could be used to begin questions.  Rather than trying to steer students to a particular question, I decided to focus the students’ attention on the kinds of questions they were already asking, and guide them to other types of questions.  It didn’t take long!  Within about 5 minutes, students had gone from “why” questions to “how many . . .” and “how much . . .” questions which are much easier to answer mathematically.

The students were then asked to figure out what they needed to solve the problem.  From experience with this task, I knew that most students would want pennies, so I had some ready.  I didn’t give them the Coin Specifications sheet, because no one asked for it.  I did have it ready, just in case.  Every group asked for pennies and rulers.  I wasn’t sure how they would use them, but I was pleasantly surprised.

Here’s what they did:

How many pennies in 2 inches

How many pennies in an inch

How many pennies fit on a 6 inch edge of the base

How many pennies cover base

How many stacked pennies in 2 inches?

The students all started in a place that made sense to them.  Some wanted to figure out how many in the stack, so they stacked pennies and quickly realized (as I did when filling the cube) that you can’t stack pennies very high before they start to wobble and fall.  So, they measured smaller stacks and used that info to solve the problem.  Others wanted to find number of pennies along an edge to find how many cover the base, then work on the stacks.  Students were thoroughly engaged.

After three 1 hour classes, students were wrapping up their solutions.  Some groups were still grappling with the number of pennies in a stack.  Others were finished.  A few were unsure about what to do with some of the numbers they generated.  All of this told the classroom teacher and me that there were some misconceptions out there that needed to be addressed.  Many of the misconceptions had to do with students disengaging from the context, rather than integrating their numbers into the context:

• One group was unsure of whether to multiply  the number of pennies in a stack by 12 (6 inches + 6 inches) or to use 64.
• Another group found the number of pennies to cover the base and multiplied it by itself to get their solution.
• A third group found 37 pennies in 2 1/2 inches and was having a difficult time handling that information.
• A fourth group had come up with two different solutions and both thought they were correct.  Only one could defend her solution.

Eventually, several groups arrived a solution that made sense to them.

Time to share!

I chose one group to share.  This group had a reasonable solution, but their method and numbers were different from many of the other groups, so this is where we were hoping for some light bulbs to begin to glow a bit.

This group shared their work:

I asked the class what they liked about the work.  The responses:

• The math (computations) are written neatly and they’re easy to follow.
• I know what their answer is because it has a bubble around it.
• The question is on it.
• It’s colorful.

All good.  Now, for the best part:

What questions do you have for this group?  The responses:

• Where did you get 34?
• What does the 102 mean?

Any suggestions for this group to help them clarify their work to answer some of your questions?

• Maybe they could label their numbers so we know what the numbers mean.
• Maybe they could tell what the answer means too.  Like put it in a sentence so it says something like “6,528 pennies will fit in the container.”
• Maybe they could have a diagram to show how they got a number like 64 or 34.  I know that would help me (this student had a diagram on his work and thought it was useful).

The light bulbs really started to glow as students began making suggestions.  As soon as a suggestion was made, students began to check their own work to see if it was on their work.  If it wasn’t, they added it.  All of the suggestions were written on the board so they could modify their work one final time.  The best part about this whole exchange was that students were suggesting to their peers to be more precise in their mathematics (SMP 6 – Attend to precision).  And, they really wanted to know what 34 was because they didn’t have that number on their boards (which is why I chose this group).

Now for the reveal!  When I asked the class if they wanted to know how many pennies were in the cube, they were surprised when I pulled up the reveal the video.  I guess they thought I’d just tell them (that’s so 1980’s).  They watched to see how close they were and when the total came up on the screen, many cheered because they were so close!

The students in this class were engaged in multiple content standards over the course of 3 days.  They reasoned, critiqued, made sense, and persevered.  It’s almost difficult to believe that this class was a “remedial” class!

Below, I’ve included a picture of each group’s final work.

Finally, one of the conversations witnessed in a group was between a girl and a boy and should have been caught on video, but wasn’t.  This group had an incorrect solution, but they were convinced they were correct, so to keep them thinking about the problem, I asked them how many dollars would be equal to the number of pennies in their answer (3,616).

• Girl:  There are 100 pennies in a dollar.  So 600 pennies is . . .
• Boy in group: \$6.00
• Girl (after a long pause):  1,000 pennies equals \$10.00
• Boy:  So that’s . . . um. . .
• Girl:  We have 3,000 pennies, so that’s \$30.00.
• Boy:  \$36.00
• Me:  Share with your group how you know it’s \$36.00
• Boy:  Because \$30.00 and \$6.00 is \$36.00
• Girl:  And the rest (16) are cents.  \$36.16!

And they didn’t even need a calculator!

Math really does make sense!

# Moving Decimals!?!?!?

Why are there teachers out there still teaching multiplication (and division) with decimals where the decimal is moving?

The answer to this question is simple.  It’s easy.  It doesn’t take as long to teach (though when you look at all of the time spent on remediation, I tend to disagree here).  And it takes little preparation.

Let’s take a look at this.  First:  It’s easy for teachers.  It is!  I agree.  If the teacher has this procedural understanding down, all they need is to find a set of computations (usually in the form of a worksheet with no context) Unfortunately, this procedural understanding breeds more procedural understanding and neglects the sense making necessary in learning mathematics.  Teaching  any mathematical procedures at the expense of making sense is like teaching only phonics with no connection to literature and comprehension.

By teaching moving the decimal, teachers are undoing any understanding of place value (and this is often surface understanding).  Think about it.  In first grade, students learn that when you get too many (10) popsicle sticks they need to get grouped together to make one ten.  This requires sense making on the students’ part.  The students are beginning to think of the group of ten as a unit.  The “ten” is a unit and they can work with that unit in much the same way as they work with a “one.”  In terms of place value understanding, the physical grouping and the representation on a place value chart help students make the connection between the digits and the values of those digits due the quantities of popsicle sticks (or any other material).  The digits are moved to a different place value based on the quantity.  Quantities connected to groupings connected to place value.  It makes sense to students when they experience it consistently.

• Two popsicle sticks are represented by a digit 2 on a place value chart
• When we get to 20 popsicle sticks (10 times as much as 2), that digit 2 that was in the ones place is now moved to the tens place.  The digits are placed based on the quantity they represent.

Flash forward to 5th grade (for example).  A student is learning to multiply decimals and the teacher is teaching procedural methods where students are told to move the decimal.  What if the student gets the incorrect product?  Do they know?  Are they aware that their computation is off?  Most likely not.  They have been taught to follow procedures (often blindly) and if they do, they’ll get the correct product.  So, when they do make an error, they are not concerned, because they’re being taught to be robots.  Follow these steps and you’ll get the right answer.  Here’s how it might sound in a classroom:

Problem on the board:  10.030 x 0.03

Teacher to student:  You made a mistake.

Student:  (answer 0.03009) But I followed the steps.

Student:  Ok. (after a few minutes) I got the same thing.  I checked my steps.

Teacher:  Did you check your multiplication?  Maybe your error is in the facts.

Student:  Yes.  I checked the multiplication – all of my facts were correct.  I don’t know what I did wrong.

Teacher:  Let me see. (a few minutes pass) Right here.  Your decimal is in the wrong place.

Student:  But I counted the places and counted back.  Why did I get the wrong answer?

Student:  But if you count the decimal places, the decimal should go 5 places back, not 4.

Teacher:  Hmm?  Thank you for bringing this to my attention.  I’ll take a look at it. . .

This scenario is very informative.   First, it’s obvious that no one in this situation “owns the math.”  The teacher is trying to be the owner, and in the student’s mind, it may be the case – as soon as the teacher says, “let me see.”  The student is trying to make sense (once the teacher corrects him), but can’t and doesn’t even know where to begin, due to the limiting procedural understanding in place.  Based on the “rules” the student learned, he is correct. So why is the answer incorrect?

One thing that the teacher did well is admit that he doesn’t know and that he wants to try to make sense of the situation, but that’s really just the beginning.  Students should also make sense of why the rule fails here.  Instead of blindly following rules, students should be estimating and using what they know to make sense (about 10 x 0.03 = 0.3 so my answer should be really close to 3 tenths).  This should be a part of every student’s math day.  It can’t just be told to students.  They need to experience the value of estimation through problem solving situations on a daily basis.  Over time, students adopt this valuable strategy and use it readily in multiple situations.

Learning (and teaching) mathematics is about making sense, not just procedures. There’s no better time to start than the present!

# Relevant Decimals Lesson

This is a lesson that I tried with a 5th grade class to give a context to decimal addition and subtraction. Most of the math problems I’ve found involving decimal computation seem “artificial.” They have a “real world” connection, but the connections are irrelevant to most 5th graders. In order to make the connections more relevant (as Dan Meyer posted in a recent blog: students want to solve it) I came up with a context for a problem that had the math content embedded, but also involved the students in the problem itself. Credit for this lesson needs to go to a 3-5 EBD class at my school. The students in this class about 3 yrs ago, loved to make tops out of connecting cubes. They did this because they were told that they couldn’t bring in any toys to class (Bey Blade was the hot toy at the time). Since they couldn’t bring in these spinning, battle tops, they created their own with connecting cubes.

The first time I witnessed these students spinning their tops, the big question they wanted to know, was whose top spun the longest. I filed the idea away until about a week ago when some 5th grade teachers at my school asked for some help with decimals. The following is the lesson I used – thanks to this class of students. It’s written as it was done. I know what I’d change when I do it again. Please take a look. Use it if you like. I’d love to hear about your results and how you change it to make it better!

Standards:

5.NBT.1 Recognize that in a multi-digit number, a digit in one place represents 10 times as much as it represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left.

5.NBT.3 Read, write, and compare decimals to thousandths.

a. Read and write decimals to thousandths using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form, e.g., 347.392 = 3 × 100 + 4 × 10 + 7 × 1 + 3 × (1/10) + 9 × (1/100) + 2 × (1/1000).

b. Compare two decimals to thousandths based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.

5.NBT.7 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.

Materials:

Connecting cubes

Decimats, or Base-ten manipulatives for modeling

Stopwatches (we used an online stopwatch that measured to thousandths of a second)

Opening:

Give students a copy of the decimat and ask what decimals might be represented. Follow up with these possible questions: What might hundredths or thousandths look like? How could you use this to model 0.013? 0.13? Share your thoughts with your partner/team?

Work Session:

The task is to design a spinning top, using connecting cubes, that will spin for as long as possible. Your group may want to design 2 or 3 tops, then choose the best from those designs. Once a design is chosen, students will spin their top and time how long it spins using a stopwatch. Each group will do this 4 times. Students should cross out the lowest time. Students will then use models and equations to show the total time for the top three spins. Students will show, on an empty number line, where the total time for their three spins lies. Students must justify their placement of this number on a number line.

Here is a sample top (thanks for asking for this Ivy!)

Closing:

Students present their tops and their data, then compare their results.

Possible discussion questions:

Whose top spun the longest?

How do you know?

How much longer did the longest spinning top spin than the second longest spinning top?

Show your thinking using a model.

How many of you would change your design to make it spin longer?

How would you change it?

Students used models to explain their thinking to each other and construct viable arguments.

# Lesson Opening Takes Over

10/21/13

I went into the class to model a lesson where students use

models to understand and compare decimals. My opening

was an empty number line with 11 hash marks – zero on the

far left and 1 on the far right.

I asked students if they knew what any of the hash marks on

the number line should be labeled. Only a few students raised

their hands, so I asked the class to talk about  this at their

tables for a minute.

After a quick discussion, a boy was chosen to come to  the front.

I asked him to point to the hash mark on the number line that

he thought he knew the label for. He pointed to the  middle line.

What I would’ve done 15 years ago, is ask him what it should be

labeled and move on with the lesson.  Instead, I asked him to

whisper what the label for the hash mark should be.

I thanked him and asked all of the groups to focus on the middle

hash mark on the empty number line and see if they could agree

on what it should be labeled.

This teaching strategy never ceases to amaze me – and neither do the

students.  The conversations were incredible.  Just allowing students

to share their ideas with each other and try to make sense of numbers

(fractions and decimals) on a number line.

In the beginning of their discussions, most students thought 1/5 (the

same thing the boy whispered in my ear). Their reasoning was that

there were 11 hash marks and the middle one was the fifth one over.

It made “perfect incorrect sense.”  But I learned what misconceptions

were prevalent in the class.

As I talked with each group, students began to question their own

reasoning.  One group, while defending the idea of 1/5 said, “Yeah,

the fifth one over is in the middle and . . . well, it is in the middle, so

it could be 1/2.” This was my time to ask, “Can it be both 1/5 and

1/2? You have 90 seconds to discuss this and I’ll be right back.”

By the time I got back, they had decided it had to be 1/2, because

they “knew” that 1/2 and 1/5 weren’t the same.

When we came back as a whole group, many of the students had

shared that they had thought it was 1/5 at first, but many changed

their minds because of the idea of the hash mark being in the middle.

Many changed their minds to 1/2, but not all.  Some had decided that

since our standard was about decimals, the hash mark should be

labeled 5/10.  The next discussion lead to proving that 1/2 = 5/10.

Once students were comfortable with the decision that 1/2 = 5/10, I

asked them to label the hash mark to the left of 5/10.  The discussion

was quick and efficient.  They knew it was 4/10 because there were

ten “sections” on the number line (no longer 11 lines), and that hash

mark was the end of the 4th of the 10 sections.  They were thinking of

the number line as an equally divided line (fractions).

Finally, the students were asked to draw a number line in their journals,

like the one at the front of the room, and label all of the hash marks

with fraction and decimal notation.

It’s important to note that this opening to the lesson (that ended up

becoming the whole lesson) would not have been possible if the teacher

hadn’t developed group norms with the students at the beginning of

the year.  This class knows, after 9 weeks, how to talk to each other,

discuss their thinking, and work together toward a common goal.